How best to store bulbs of gladioli, lilies, dahlias, cannes, calla lilies, begonias, tulips in winter
Bulbous flowers are one of the most popular garden plants, which are grown not only for cutting to decorate homes, but also allow growers to create exquisite flower beds and elegant flower gardens in the gardens, and also refresh our balconies and terraces in the summer. Flowers, united under the general name "bulbous", in fact sometimes do not resemble each other at all - they are planted at different times, they differ not only in appearance, but also in the requirements for care; bulbs of some flowers, after flowering, must be dug up and stored, and there are those whose bulbs winter safely in the garden.
About when and how to dig up bulbs for the winter, where is it better to store tubers of certain flowers, how to store them correctly, how much bulbs can be stored, how to store bulbs at home if you do not have cold rooms - we will tell you about all this in our article.
How to store gladioli in winter
After you have removed the gladiolus bulbs from the ground, let them dry, peel them off and examine them, then discard the damaged and spoiled ones. Cut the roots of adult corms so that during storage they do not evaporate moisture, shorten the stem, leaving only a centimeter from it so that the plant does not infect thrips - one of the most dangerous pests of gladiolus. By the way, it is for these reasons that gladiolus bulbs should be dug out before the air temperature in the garden drops to 10 ºC, because after a cold snap, thrips descend along the stem and, preparing for wintering, climb under the scales of gladiolus corms.
Remove the old corms, and in children, cut the roots to 1 cm, rinse them under running water, removing the remaining soil, and place them in a disinfecting solution for 30 minutes. There are fungicides and insecticides that can be combined in order to destroy pathogens of fungal diseases on the bulb in one solution and at the same time kill the larvae of pests. You can find out which drugs are compatible from the seller in the flower shop or read the instructions for the drugs. In the end, as an insecticide and fungicide, you can use a solution of potassium permanganate at the rate of 5 g per 10 liters of water.
Before storing gladiolus bulbs, they are first dried for three weeks at a temperature of 25-35 ºC, and then for about one and a half months at a temperature of 20-25 ºC, after which the bulbs are sorted by size and type, put in wooden boxes, and covered dry peat and stored at a temperature of 3-7 ºC with an air humidity of about 70%. Such conditions can be created in a basement or cellar.
For those who do not have such auxiliary facilities or they serve other purposes, listen to how to store gladioli at home. If there is not much planting material, it is placed in a vegetable box of the refrigerator, where it can be stored for up to two years, but in this case, the bulbs should not be put in boxes, but in paper bags.
If there are a lot of bulbs, or you have already occupied the refrigerator with something else, place the gladiolus planting material in the coldest place of the apartment - this can be a cage on the staircase, a cardboard box located on the floor by the door to a glazed balcony or loggia - the main thing is to be close there were no heaters.
When to dig and how to store
It is very important not to rush in this matter - the better the corms ripen, the better they will be stored in winter, so they need to be removed from the soil no earlier than the first decade of October. The dahlia tubers dug out are carefully freed from the soil, washed under a strong pressure of water, after which they are kept in a room with high humidity and low, but positive temperatures for a week in order to cause the so-called corking of the skin, which during winter storage will protect the bulb from moisture loss.
Then the bulbs are cleaned of the roots, the stems are cut off at a height of 3-4 cm from the neck, and the places of the cuts are treated with fluff lime. After that, each tuber must be put in a paper bag, add vermiculite to it, glue or bandage the bag and store at a temperature of 5-7 ºC, that is, in a basement or cellar that does not freeze in winter. Storage in the refrigerator is also possible, if there is room for dahlia tubers in it.
There is another storage method that protects the dahlia planting material from drying out - treating the corms before storing with paraffin. To do this, paraffin is dissolved in a water bath to a liquid state and each bulb or baby is dipped in it. This should be done on an electric stove with a closed spiral, since paraffin is highly flammable.
A day before the procedure, add the drying bulbs from a cool room to a place where the temperature is about 15 ºC, let them warm up, then dip each in paraffin heated to 70-80 ºC and, after the paraffin has solidified, put the processed bulbs in a box and place in the coolest place in the apartment.
How to store lilies in winter
Lily bulbs are dug out at the first frost, after cutting off the leaves at a height of 7-8 cm from the ground. Usually the first cold weather occurs in mid-October. After removing the bulbs from the ground, they need to be washed with cool running water and carefully examined for mechanical damage and disease damage, then healthy bulbs should be placed in a solution of Fundazol or Karbofos for half an hour. After that, the planting material suitable for storage is dried for several days in a cool, dark place - a shed or garage.
A heated drying room is not suitable, because after cold soil, heat can provoke the appearance of mold on the bulbs. The best temperature for drying is around 15 ºC. After 5-7 days, the bulbs are sprinkled with fungicidal powder, laid out in paper bags, adding vermiculite to them. You can put the bulbs in a cardboard box with ventilation holes and pour vermiculite into it - the main thing is that the bulbs do not come into contact with each other and cannot infect each other if rot occurs.
You can put a layer of bulbs on the river sand, poured into the bottom of a box or wooden box, then completely cover the bulbs with sand and put the next layer of bulbs on it, which also needs to be covered with sand, etc.
How to store bulbs in the basement
At what temperature should the planting material be stored so that it does not deteriorate until spring? The worst enemies of lily bulbs are moisture and decay, so store bulbs in a dry, dark place at temperatures between 0 and 2 ºC - this is ideal, but the temperature may be slightly higher. If you store the bulbs in a box of vermiculite or sand, you will be able to monitor their condition during the entire storage period, and if you notice that the bulbs have begun to dry out, you can spray them with water, thus increasing the air humidity.
How to store cannes in winter
Cannes tubers are dug up from mid-September to early October. First, the stem is cut off at a height of 15-20 cm from the ground, then the tubers are carefully dug with a pitchfork, trying to leave an earthen lump on them, they are examined for damaged, rotten or sick ones, and laid out to dry under a canopy.
How to store tubers
Storage in the refrigerator is not possible, since it is highly desirable that the tubers be in the ground during storage. Most suitable for storage is a cold basement or veranda with an air temperature of 8-10 ºC and an air humidity of 70-90%. But if neither one nor the other is impossible, then how to store cannes tubers with an earthen lump in an apartment? It is best to keep them on a balcony or insulated loggia.
How to store tulips in winter
When to dig up bulbs
The tulip bulbs are dug up when the top two leaves of the flower have turned yellow and the top of the stem is easily wrapped around the finger. After being removed from the soil, the bulbs are dried at a temperature of 25-30 ºC and an air humidity of about 50% for a week or ten days, then they are cleaned of soil, old scales and roots and divided into varieties: first grade - bulbs with a diameter of at least 4 cm, the second - with a diameter of 3 to 4 cm, the third - from 2 to 3 cm.Then the bulbs are laid out in boxes of varieties in one layer and stored for a month at a temperature of 20-25 ºC with an air humidity of 70-80%, after which the temperature is reduced to 15 -18 ºC, and after two weeks it is lowered to 12 ºC, and the air humidity is down to 60-70%.
How long should tulip bulbs be stored in such conditions? Usually tulip bulbs are stored until they are planted in the ground before winter.
How to store calla lilies
Calla tubers are dug out at the end of September without first cutting the ground part of the plant, placed in cardboard boxes and left to dry for a couple of weeks. The readiness of the bulbs for storage is determined experimentally: the leaves should easily move away from the bulb. The calla bulbs freed from the leaves are left to dry for another week. Bulbs are considered dry enough, from which the roots are easily separated. After removing the roots from the bulbs, inspect them for rot.
If black areas appear on the bulb, scrape off the blackness with a teaspoon, let the bulb dry for a couple of hours, and then treat the wounds with brilliant green or crushed coal. After separation of the children, the breaks on the bulbs are also treated with brilliant green, after which the baby is wrapped in a paper napkin. Do not break off unripe babies from an adult bulb - the time will come, they will ripen and leave on their own. Processed bulbs and babies are put in a cardboard box, covered with a lid and stored until spring in a dry cellar with a temperature of 3 to 7 ºC. If the bulbs are few, you can store them in the refrigerator.
How to store begonia
Young begonias, dug out of the ground together with tubers, are stored until spring in boxes with peat or sand in a bright cool room at a temperature of 10-15 ºC. Water them sparingly until they start growing again. But if you decide to store only begonia tubers, then before storing them you need to dry them for a week, treat pests and diseases with a solution of potassium permanganate or Karbofos, then place them in one layer in a box with a mixture of sand and vermiculite, fill them with completely the same mixture , then put the next layer of tubers on top, cover it with vermiculite and sand, etc. The box is closed with a lid and placed on a glazed loggia or lowered into a dry basement, where the temperature in winter does not drop below 8-10 ºC. Look into the box from time to time, and if you find any sprouts on the bulbs, break them out, as they are not viable anyway.
The rest of the bulbous plants are not stored in winter; they are planted in the garden before winter.
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