Calochortus is a little-known bulbous herbaceous perennial in our country, belonging to the Liliaceae family. The Kalohortus flower is capable of growing both outdoors and as a houseplant. The flower has American roots, so it is most widespread in many parts of the United States, as well as in Canada, Mexico, Guatemala.

Description of the plant Kalohortus

The Kalochortus flower consists of a thin branched stem from 10 cm to 2 m high (depending on the species), on which narrow-linear leaf plates are located, and delicate single flowers or umbellate inflorescences of various palette, collected from three petals in the form of moth wings.

Plants can become a real decoration of a garden and a personal plot in the spring-summer season, and in indoor conditions - a highlight of the interior and an element of closeness to nature throughout the year. You can admire white, pink, red, purple, lilac and yellow flowers in spring and summer. Kalohortus propagates by seeds or daughter bulbs.

Growing Kalohortus from seeds

Sowing seeds

Seeds should be stored for no more than 2-3 years in a dry and dark place at a temperature of 15-25 degrees Celsius. This must be taken into account when buying planting material.

Since the seed size is 1-2 mm, the planting depth should not exceed 5-15 mm. In the spring, seeds are sown chaotically over the soil surface, after which they are covered with a rake. For autumn planting, it is more convenient to use small grooves with a depth of about 1.5 cm.The width of the row spacing is about 25 cm.

Some species (eg of California origin) must be stratified before sowing.

Seed stratification

Within 2-4 months, the seed material must be kept in a plastic bag with wet sand on the bottom shelf of the refrigerator or in the cellar (basement) until the seeds germinate, after which they can be sown in open ground (in early spring).

In the absence of severe winters, seeds can be sown in open ground before winter to undergo natural stratification.

The first flowering after sowing seeds on open beds occurs only after 5-6 years.

Seedling Kalohortus

The seedling method of growing is recommended for thermophilic species of Kalohortus plants. In this case, seed stratification is not required.

Sowing seeds is carried out in the last winter days or in the first spring week. You will need a planting container with a nutritious soil mixture for flowering plants. Each seed should be lightly pressed into the soil to a depth of about five millimeters, moistened with a fine spray and covered with glass or plastic.

Favorable conditions for growing are about 20 degrees of heat indoors, bright diffused lighting for 10-12 hours, regular ventilation and humidification, hardening of seedlings.

A planting box with small bulbs in the summer should be kept outdoors in partial shade conditions at a temperature of no more than 28 degrees Celsius. Watering is carried out moderately, young plants are fed once a season with complex mineral fertilizers.

In the first year, not all seeds will be able to germinate. For the winter, the containers are transferred to room conditions. Seedlings can be transplanted to open beds only after 2 years.

Planting Kalohortus in open ground

Autumn planting is used for species that bloom in the spring. In the spring, it is preferable to plant species of plants, the flowering period of which occurs in the summer months.


The best place for growing Kalohortus is an area with partial shade, without drafts and strong gusts of wind, with well-drained soil (with slightly alkaline or neutral reactions) sandy loam in composition.

Before planting, it is recommended to immerse the bulbs for half an hour in a weak manganese solution, then rinse and dry. Planting depth - no more than 15 cm and no less than 5 cm.The distance between plants is 10 cm.


Moderate watering of Kalohortus is carried out only during the growing season; after flowering, watering is not needed. Excessive moisture can cause the bulbs to rot.

Top dressing and fertilizers

From spring to autumn, it is recommended to feed the plants 3 times: in March (with mineral fertilizers), at the stage of bud formation (with phosphorus) and after flowering (with potassium).

Preparing for winter

Winter-resistant species and varieties of Kalohortus do not need to be dug out for the winter, they can survive frosts up to 34 degrees, the rest should be moved to a cellar or basement for the winter. It is recommended to cover the remaining plants in the soil with compost or peat mulch.

Storing the bulbs

The dug out bulbs, after drying and sorting, must be stored in cardboard containers in a dark and dry place with a temperature of about 15 degrees Celsius.

Reproduction of Kalohortus

Reproduction of Kalohortus by daughter bulbs

The rules for growing Kalohortus from daughter bulbs is the correct preparation and storage of planting material. Daughter bulbs are separated from the main bulbs, which are dug out of the soil after flowering, sorted, dried at a temperature of about 20 degrees and good air circulation, and then stored in a cool, dark place until planting.

Diseases and pests

The main pests of Kalohortus are rats, mice, hares and rabbits. A possible disease is bacteriosis, which occurs when there is an excess of moisture. It is necessary to observe the irrigation regime and cover the plantings with polyethylene during long rains.

Types and varieties of Kalohortus

The genus Kalohortus consists of almost 70 different species, which are conventionally divided into three groups according to the shape and height of plants, as well as their adaptability to climate, soil and weather conditions.

Group 1 - Kalohortus Mariposa (Mariposa lilies)

The first group includes tall representatives that develop well in the middle zone on the territories of dry meadows and semi-deserts, in the vicinity of thorny bushes. Some of them are very popular types.

Kalohortus beautiful - consists of a branched stem from 10 to 60 cm in height, twenty centimeter basal leaves with a grayish surface and inflorescences - umbrellas of 6 flowers of white, bright red, pink or purple shades in the form of bells. It prefers to grow in areas with sandy soil 0.5-2.5 km above sea level.

Kalohortus yellow - differs from other species in the dark yellow color of the flower with a red-brown spot in the center and a maximum height of about 30 cm. Bred in California.

Kalohortus is excellent - most often it can be found on mountain slopes near the shore of a reservoir or on desert foothills. The average plant height is 40-60 cm. Inflorescences of three flowers or independent flowers are white or pinkish.

Kalohortus Vesta - consists of a branched stem, basal leaf rosettes and single white flowers with a pale yellow spot in the center. Average height - about 50 cm. Prefers to grow in forest areas, loves clay soil.

Group 2 - Star Tulips and Cat's Ears

The second group of colochortus includes small-sized plants with smooth or pubescent petals, capable of dwelling in high-mountainous regions on complex soils.

Kalohortus Tolmi - a species characterized by high germination of seeds that do not require stratification, and a variety of colors during flowering. It is able to show all its beauty even on poor dry soil. The average height is 10-60 cm.

Kalohortus univalent - blooms in the second half of May with yellow flowers with slight pubescence at the edges of the petals. Reaches a height of 10-15 cm. Feels great in clay areas in partial shade conditions.

Kalohortus small - a baby plant with white inflorescences, the growth of which does not exceed 10 cm. Loves moist meadow soil, but can grow well on mountain slopes at high altitudes.

Kalohortus nudus - a species of plants with individual flowers of a light lilac or pink hue, preferring to settle on soils with high humidity in the immediate vicinity of a lake or swamp. Average height - no more than 30 cm.

Kalohortus one-flowered - a species that has gained great popularity in horticulture for its simplicity in cultivation, high winter hardiness and resistance to diseases and pests.

Group 3 - Ball-shaped, magic lantern (Faіry Lanterns or Globe Tulіps)

The third group is called "Spherical, magic lanterns", as the shape of the flowers are similar to small balls.

Kalohortus white - consists of narrow basal leaves about 20-50 cm long and white inflorescences of 3-12 globular flowers with a pubescent surface. Plant height - about 50 cm. In its natural environment, it occurs on forest edges and on mountain slopes in penumbra conditions.

Kalohortus pleasant - a species of plants with golden yellow spherical flowers, which is widespread on forest soils with good lighting and on mountain slopes at an altitude of 0.2-1 km above sea level.

Kalohortus Amoenus - has a branched stem up to 15 cm high, flowers of pink shades round in shape. Grows well in shady areas with good soil moisture.

Annona (sour cream apple): cultivation

Annona (Guanabana, Sour cream apple) is an evergreen tropical plant with fruits similar to small green melons with soft thorns over the entire surface of the fruit, reaching a length of 35 cm and a weight of 7 kg.

Annona is widespread in the American continent, but is most widespread in Mexico, Venezuela, Argentina, the Bahamas and Bermuda. As a cultivated plant, Annona Muricata is grown in warm regions: Australia, India, China, etc. Guanabana is one of the many varieties of Annona.

Tulips: causes of degeneration and poor flowering

Tulips are a decoration for the garden, which means that the gradual degeneration of your favorite flowers cannot leave indifferent a gardener and any connoisseur of beauty. Let's look at the main reasons why tulips bloom poorly. Suddenly come in handy!

The plant got its name "Tulip" due to its resemblance to a turban - a Persian headdress. Tulips were introduced to the Old World in the 16th century and caused real tulip mania in Holland. Thanks to a sincere love for tulips and a large area of ​​cultivation, the Netherlands is still called the "Land of Tulips".

Tulips can be found everywhere, literally at every site. Florists love tulips for their unpretentiousness and ease of reproduction - they planted a bulb and got a flower.

Seeing poorly growing and sluggish flowering tulip plants, do not panic - you need to determine the reasons and find a way to solve the problem. Moreover, plants propagated vegetatively, by bulbs, cannot be reborn, since they completely repeat the hereditary characteristics of their parent.

The reasons for poor tulip flowering and plant degeneration lie on the surface:

  1. Rejection during storage. Bulbs of modern varieties of tulips: lily, fringed, parrot, terry, are distinguished by increased requirements for winter storage conditions, are weakly resistant to diseases and pests, compared to the usual red tulips. For most gardeners, tulip bulbs are stored together, without distinction to varieties, a rare grower will add a label with the name of the variety. Bulbs of modern varieties are stored worse, more often they rot and are discarded in favor of conventional varieties. After a few years of such rejection, the grower runs out of tulip babies of "beautiful" varieties and only red tulips remain, which winter well in the ground.
  2. Natural selection. Traditional, resistant varieties produce a lot of baby bulbs. In the fall, when digging up traditional varieties of tulips, a lot of children that are of no value to us remain in the soil. The next year, beautiful, young, strong tulips grow from them. Against the background of such a neighborhood, greenhouse varieties of tulips quickly become smaller and degenerate, having ceased to bloom. Hardy varieties, on the contrary, go deeper and live their own lives there, "clogging up" the flower garden with their flowers.
  3. Time for digging out the bulbs. Bulbs of modern varieties quickly become shallow and become unusable due to early or too late harvesting of bulbs for winter storage. It is known that tulip bulbs must be dug up when the leaves have turned yellow, but have not yet turned into dust. At this time (end of June, July) tulip bulbs are easy to get out of the ground. Tulip bulbs must be stored properly. Photo:
  4. Poor drying and improper storage - lead to the degeneration of baby tulip bulbs. In order to properly dry the bulbs immediately after digging, they must be placed under a canopy and dried there.The tulip bulbs start dividing after drying, cleaning and sorting the bulbs by varieties and sizes, and placing them in boxes with a mesh bottom. The boxes are then placed in a storage area. For the first two to three weeks, tulip bulbs are stored at + 22 ° C. If the bulbs are immediately placed in a room with a low temperature, then they may not bloom at all next year. The temperature is gradually lowered to ° C, then to ° C. At this temperature, the bulbs are stored until next year, before planting in the ground.
  5. Low cut flowers - a common cause of tulip degeneration. If too few leaves are left on the peduncle, then the flowers become smaller from year to year. The correct cut of tulips is as follows: cut flowers no lower than above the second leaf. Rule: the more leaves, the larger the bulb will grow. After cutting, the peduncles and leaves are left alone until they are excavated.
  6. A viral or fungal disease. Tulips suffer from diseases of viral and fungal origin. Disease control should be carried out continuously - before planting, suspicious bulbs are discarded, before planting, the bulbs are disinfected with potassium permanganate for an hour, and tulips are not planted after tomatoes and potatoes in order to exclude the transmission of diseases from these plants.
Tulip flowers, Purple Flag cultivar. Photo:

Let's summarize. With proper care and maintenance of tulip bulbs, plants will delight you with no expiration date.

Take care of the health of plants, properly store babies of different varieties, sort and keep records of plants and you will forget about "rebirth".

Growing features

Tiarella is blooming. Source:

The plant is quite unpretentious, resistant to diseases and pests, does not require careful maintenance, moreover, it perfectly suppresses the growth of weeds, and its lush dense foliage prevents the evaporation of soil moisture.

The soil for its cultivation requires loose, moisture-consuming, well-drained. Preferred substrates with a neutral or slightly alkaline reaction. If they are light, porous, then in a place open to the sun, the plants look oppressed, and sometimes die.

And after the end of flowering, in June, numerous creeping shoots appear from the rosettes, growing throughout the summer and taking root in each node. The growth rate is so high that 20 new shoots can appear in place of one plant during the summer. As a result, a dense cover is formed, which, together with a shallow but powerful root system, fixes the soil well.

The base of the bush becomes bare over time, so you should not remove the mulching material in the spring.With it, the plantings will look more decorative, besides, soil moisture will be better preserved.

There is one more problem. Since the foliage of tiarella is evergreen, in spring, when the snow melts, the leaves begin to evaporate moisture. But at the same time, the roots are in cold ground and are not yet able to replenish the water supply in the leaves. In this way, if spring is fast, dry and sunny, then the thiarella becomes dehydrated, which can destroy the plant. This problem will be solved if tiarella and water regularly crown with warm water.

For good tulip growth it is necessary sandy loam or light loamy soil, loose and crumbly, with a neutral reaction. Highly moistened soils, especially peaty soils, with a close groundwater table, are unsuitable. Acidic soils must be limed

The soil should be well fertilized with organic fertilizers for years, or fertilized with leaf and dung humus before planting the bulbs.

Fresh manure for fertilizing the soil when growing tulips cannot be applied... On heavy clay soils, it is necessary to add 1 bucket of coarse river sand and the same amount of peat per 1 m 2, as well as 1 glass of lime and 2 tbsp. spoons of nitrophosphate.

If the soil on the site is generally unsuitable for growing tulips, then you should dig a trench 30 cm deep and of the required length and width, put drainage on the bottom with a layer thick and fill the trench with nutritious loose earth on top. All this must be done days before planting the bulbs.

Hybrid Kalohortus varieties are one of the best options for gardeners looking for unpretentious plants for hot, dry climates. These delicate butterfly lilies coexist perfectly with other garden pets.

Kalohortus classification:

1. Tall (mariposa lilies), which have flowers with smooth petals adorned with bright spots. Most of the species of this group grow in meadows among the grass. These species are easy to cultivate and have already started to multiply.

Here are the most prominent representatives of the group: Calochortus venustus, Calochortus luteus, Calochortus superbus, Calochortus vestae.

2. Star-shaped (star tulips or cat's ears), which have "furry" petals. These are plants of high mountainous regions.

3. Spherical (fairy) having flowers in the shape of lanterns. They prefer semi-shady areas under trees or shrubs.

Typical representatives: C. albus, C. amabilis, C. amoenus Kalochortus bulbs are edible.

In ancient times, the North American Indians ate them boiled and fried. Kalohortus (Sego lily) is the emblem of the state of Utah and has been under state protection since 1911.

Growing conditions

Prefers sun or light partial shade. The bright light stimulates the development of beautiful large flowers. Soils are slightly acidic, sandy, loamy and well-drained without stagnant water. Watering is very moderate during extended periods of drought and during periods of active growth.

By the middle of summer, the leaves turn yellow and die off, and Kalohortus goes into hibernation. The perennial loses its decorative effect and the foliage is cut off.


Small, rounded bulbs are planted 5-7 cm deep and 10 cm apart. Do not fertilize the soil during planting, as this stimulates the abundant development of foliage due to flowers. If you are going to grow Kalohortus indoors with subsequent planting in open ground, then it is better to start the process in late summer or early spring at a temperature of 13 to 18 degrees Celsius.

Diseases and pests

Bulbs Kalohortus are enjoyed not only by American Indians, but also by rats, mice, rabbits and hares. Bacteriosis Kalohortus caused by excessively waterlogged soil.

"The origin of the floristic symbols of English-speaking countries"

MOU "Secondary School No. 39"

"The origin of the floristic symbols of English-speaking countries"

Theses of student research work on the topic: "The origin of floristic symbols of English-speaking countries" of a student of the 8th grade of the MOU "Secondary School No. 39" of the Saransk city district Suvorova Margarita

The work is devoted to the origin of plant symbols in Great Britain, USA, Canada, Australia and New Zealand.

Floristic symbols belong to the most ancient signs of socio-cultural coding. Obviously, national symbolism is a unique phenomenon that accompanies peoples throughout the history of development, reflecting the character of the people, their customs, everyday life, their spiritual values ​​and ideals. The theme of national symbols relevant, which is due to the growing interest in the culture and history of other countries, as well as in the preservation of their national identity,

What was the reason for the choice of this particular plant by the whole people as a national symbol? What is the history of the origin of this national mark?

The purpose of the study is an analysis of the origin of plant symbols of Great Britain, USA, Canada, Australia and New Zealand.

1. Research into the history of the emergence of floristic symbols in English-speaking countries

2. Revealing the national specifics of symbols, characteristic features, features of a particular sign.

3. An attempt to draw attention to national symbols and to the problem of national identity in general.

Research materials and methods.

Factual material was taken from regional literature, encyclopedias, dictionaries, scientific articles, where they found existing explanations for the origin of symbols.

The following methods were used for the study: theoretical (study of scientific literature on this topic), practical (continuous sampling method, analysis and statistical)

The origin of 60 floristic symbols of English-speaking countries is analyzed.

Research results

As a result of comparison and analysis of the history of the origin of 60 plant symbols, a number of regularities were identified., determined the choice of one or another floristic symbolism as national.

The analysis of the research results led to the following conclusions:

1. Influence of geography on the process of determination is pronounced. Most of the symbol plants (99%) grow on the territory of the people who used this plant as a sign of sociocultural coding.

2. The origin of most of the symbols is associated with legends and traditions in which information about the past is transmitted (89%).

3. The choice of a symbol based on specific historical events is observed in 10% of cases.

4. Symbols, determined on the basis of religious beliefs of the people, make up 1%.

The defining element of the national code is itsredness, a special symbolic meaning that has developed over the centuries.

From our point of view, the results of the questionnaire survey of students carried out in the course of the study are of certain interest. The image of the “umarina” apple tree turned out to be the most popular associative symbol of Mordovia.

We believe that our research will be useful not only for students. They can be used by teachers in lessons and electives in English, geography, biology, as well as all those who are those who are interested in the history and culture of English-speaking countries.

1. History of the origin of plant symbols of Great Britain 3

2. Plant symbols of other English-speaking countries 5

2.2 Australia and New Zealand 5

2.3. United States of America 6

3. General and specific features of national symbols 9

4. In the language of numbers - the results of the survey 13

Symbolism has existed since ancient times as a way of representing the world in the form of concrete images, a way of concretizing thought.

Word "symbol" came from the ancient Greek language (from the Greek “symbolon”) and has many meanings such as “identity”, “service sign”. The term is understood in different ways by linguists, historians and cultural scientists.

From our point of view, in relation to national symbols, the most accurate definition is "identification mark", "sign". Symbols mean conventional signs of certain concepts, phenomena, ideas.

Symbol, image is one of the key concepts semiotics... Semiotick or semiology explores the properties of signs or sign systems. Its status as a unified science is still controversial.

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Various aspects of national symbols attract the attention of many sciences. So symbols are being studied heraldry, and national symbols is the subject of research stories, cultural studies, regional studies, ethnography.

Symbols are part of the culture and history of peoples, an essential factor sociocultural coding. National signs play an important role in the functioning of the historical memory of the people. Scientists believe that "symbols are a kind of text." This text is addressed to future generations. Symbolic objects and signs accompany any nation throughout the history of its development. Heraldry - the science of coats of arms and emblems divides all symbols, according to their origin, into natural, artificial and fantastic.

Natural symbols reflect the diversity of the natural world. People often attach a special symbolic meaning to common everyday plants, distinguishing them from the environment. An ordinary plant becomes a mark of distinction of an entire people, acquire a special meaning, a property of a sign. Concept "National" the flower was born before the flags of states or emblems appeared. The depiction of flowers and plants on coats of arms also has a long history. Such ancient symbols as an olive branch - the personification of peace and hope or a laurel branch - a sign of glory, pomegranate and a sheaf of wheat - symbols of fertility, a lily flower - a symbol of purity and hope, and many others accompany mankind for many centuries. Each of the floral signs has its own unique history, its special symbolicmeaning that has formed over the centuries.

It's hard to imagine a country that doesn't have its own "Iconic" plants. Each person can name an object of flora associated with his homeland. The image of the Russian birch, the Mordovian apple-tree “umarina” accompany our thinking from early childhood. Each nation has its own symbols. They are designed to prove national identity, preserve the cultural values ​​of the past, reflect the connection between modern society and the past generation.

Of certain scientific interest is the study of the origin of the floristic symbolism of different peoples. What was the reason for the choice of this particular plant by the whole people? Maybe this is the influence of the geography of its growth? But how to explain the different meanings given by different peoples to the same plants?

Relevance The chosen topic is due to the increased interest in foreign-language cultures, in the culture of English-speaking countries, which is dictated by the development and expansion of economic, cultural and scientific ties between countries.

On the other hand, there is a desire of every nation not to lose its cultural identity, to keep in touch with past generations.

The purpose of the study is an analysis of the origin of plant symbols of Great Britain, USA, Canada, Australia and New Zealand.

1. Research of the reasons, as a result of which this or that country has chosen this particular floristic symbol.

2. Revealing the national specifics of symbols, characteristic features, features of a particular sign.

3. An attempt to draw attention to national symbols and to the problem of national identity in general.

1. History of the origin of plant symbols of Great Britain

Each country has its own "National" plant, your "National" flower. They reflect the culture of the state, its history, presenting the country to the outside world.

The symbol of England is the red rose (lat.Rosa).

The attention of any person studying the history of Great Britain will be attracted by such a strange name as the War of the Scarlet and White Rose. How can the name of the delicate flower be associated with the war?

As the encyclopedic dictionary testifies: "The War of the Scarlet and White Roses () is a bloody feudal struggle for the English throne between two lines of the Plantagenet royal dynasty - Lancaster (in the coat of arms a scarlet rose) and York (in the coat of arms a white rose)". The rivalry between the dynasties ended with the wedding of Henry VII of the Lancaster family and Princess Elizabeth, daughter of Edward IV of the York family. The bloody war is over and Red Rose became not only a symbol of reconciliation, but also national flower of England.

Thistle (lat. Carduus) - the symbol of Scotland.

Can a weed really represent a national flower?

Again, a story, rather a legend, which tells of how once a group of Vikings tried to attack the sleeping Scots. One of the attackers stepped on a thistle growing among the grass with his bare foot. His cry awakened the sleeping Scots, and they were able to fight back their enemies. The plant that saved the lives of the mountaineers was named “Thistle- keeper " and became a symbol of an independent people. According to Wikipedia, in 1470, during the reign of James III, the image of a thistle appeared on silver coins. In 1687, the first knightly order in Scotland, the Order of the Thistle, was created. Jacob III approved the plant as a national emblem. In 1702, the image of a thistle was introduced into the coat of arms of Great Britain.

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Wales has two plant symbols - yellow daffodil (lat.Narcissus.) and leek (Allium porrum)

Leek the national emblem of Wales. Its history is connected with the name of Saint David. According to one of the legends, David lived for several years eating only bread and wild leeks. Another legend says that one of the battles against the Saxons took place on an onion field. During the battle, Saint David urged his soldiers to attach leeks to their helmets to distinguish their companions from their enemies. Confirmation of the fact that the Welsh adorned themselves with leeks is found in Shakespeare's Henry V.

Another famous symbol of Wales yellow daffodil also associated with the name of St. David. These flowers begin to bloom on March 1st on the feast of St. David. The Welsh national flower adorns the daffodil fields of Wales in the spring.

Shamrock (Trifolium dubium) - the floral symbol of Ireland. This plant is associated with the name of St. Patrick. According to legend, with the help of clover, the saint explained to people the concept of the Holy Trinity. Just as three leaves can grow from one stem, so God can be one in three persons. The shamrock has become a symbol of St. Patrick's Day. For the first time, the custom of decorating clothes with a clover leaf was mentioned in 1689. Many years later, the shamrock became for the Irish a symbol of freedom and rebellious spirit. The humble plant has become the personification of the people of Ireland.

Obviously, the facts in this chapter indicate deep historical roots sign identification.

2. Plant symbols of other English-speaking countries

“The landscape of the country is the same element of national culture, like everything else. He is the expression of the soul of the people. "

Amazing historical facts are associated with the plant symbol of the northernmost of the English-speaking countries. There are 10 types of maples in Canada. Sugar maple (Latin Acer Saccharum) is found in the Great Lakes region, distributed in East America. It is no coincidence that this tree has become the national symbol of Canada. Since ancient times, maple has been the only source of sugar. The Indians of North America boiled maple syrup from its juice. Maple helped residents to maintain health, and sometimes life in harsh climatic conditions.

The first written mention of the maple leaf as a symbol dates back to 1760. In the late 1830s, St. John's Baptist Society of Quebec adopted the maple leaf as its symbol.It was he who was offered to carry the Canadians at a meeting with the Prince of Wales as a national symbol when he first visited Canada in 1860.

Officially Maple Leaf became a national symbol of Canada in 1965 when he adorned the country's national flag.

2.2. Australia and New Zealand

Australia's official floral emblem golden acacia Golden Wattle is a small tree with bright green leaves and golden yellow spring flowers. Acacia is the most common plant in Australia. Dense thickets of stunted plants, trees and shrubs are characteristic of the arid areas of this country. Not surprisingly, the presence of acacia branches on the national emblem of the country as a frame for kangaroos and emu.

The coat of arms of New Zealand is decorated with silver cyatea - fern (lat.Cyathea dealbata). It is the unofficial but widely recognized floristic symbol of the country.

2.3 United States of America

The rose was declared the national floral emblem of the United States in October 1985, following a Senate resolution. Senate Joint Resolution 159 was passed by the House of Representatives on September 23, 1986. The resolution expressed the desire for the president to issue a proclamation declaring the rose a national flower. President Reagan signed the resolution on October 7, 1986, during a ceremony held at the White House Rose Garden. On November 20, 1986, President Reagan issued proclamation 5574 "Rose is the national floristic emblem of the United States of America. "

Flowers have attracted the attention of people at all times. They helped express feelings. Love, gratitude, admiration, grief, the whole gamut of human emotions was associated by people with plants. Hanging Gardens of Babylon is one of the wonders of the world. Throughout the history of their development, people have attributed symbolic properties to flowers.

Floristic symbol - each of the 50 states of America has a flower.

Orange tree flower

Of course, each of these symbol colors has its own story. Peoples they choose symbols for a reason... Each of these plants has a unique history associated with it. As an example, we will use two such stories from Wikipedia.

One of the most beautiful plants in North America is the Mountain Laurel. The aroma of this plant and the richness of colors of its pale white and pink petals, which sharply contrasted with the lush greenery of the American forest, attracted the attention of travelers and the very first European colonists of North America.

The 1907 General Assembly approved the Mountain Laurel as a Connecticut flower. This flower was first described by John Smith in his book "General History" in 1624. And in 1750, the famous botanist, Swedish explorer Peter Kalm sent several specimens of the flower to the famous naturalist scientist Linnaeus. Linnaeus gave this flower the name Kalmia latifolia - in honor of Peter Kalm, who sent this plant. In addition to the well-known name of the mountain laurel flower, it is sometimes called the Calico Bush. Connecticut residents. indicate the freedom-loving nature of the wild-growing symbol flower.

The state of Connecticut also has its own symbolic tree - the famous "Charter" oak (Quercus alba). In 1687, a "Charter" document was hidden in his hollow, associated with the names of the Governor of Connecticut, John Winthrop, Jr. and King Charles II. The document gave the state authorities the right to govern the territory independently of Britain. The oak became a symbol of the spiritual strength and love of freedom that inspired America's early colonists to resist and fight against tyranny.

Only two plants from a huge list, but immediately striking is a huge amount of historical, scientific (botanical) and (geographical) facts behind the choice of these floristic symbols, which are inseparable from the history of the state of Connecticut.

50 colors, 50 images, 50 characters, understandable filled meaningmeaningful to people. In these symbols the reflection traditions, customs, history of the people, which are factors in the choice of the vegetable symbol.

3. General and specific features of national symbols

«The landscape of the country is the same element

national culture, like everything else.

He is the expression of the soul of the people»

Comparison and analysis allows us to identify a common, repeating feature characteristic of most of the listed floristic symbols. Most of the plants presented in the first and second chapters (99%) grow on the territory of which they are a symbol. All of them are part of the landscape, and therefore part of the life of people inhabiting this territory.

Impact is obvious geographic factors and habitat to choose a plant of the national symbol.

Terrain in the North of the USA

In the symbolism of the southern states of the United States, thermophilic plant species predominate. While the inhabitants of the northern states choose plants growing in their area as symbols.

The lupine (bluebonnet) is to Texas what the cactus (cactus) is to the inhabitant of New Mexico. After all, every spring millions of lupins bloom on the meadows of Texas, and the landscape of New Mexico with its deserts and semi-deserts cannot be imagined without cacti. On the face influence of natural-geographical factors (climate, landscape, etc.)

But it is impossible to explain the choice of the symbol plant only by the geography of growth. It is wrong to imagine plants only as a decoration for life, a part of the landscape.

They themselves are an integral part of the life of people inhabiting a given territory, with plants are often associated with everyday life features, traditions, rituals, beliefs and prejudices.

So, selling peaches has always been a source of income for Delaware farmers. On May 9, 1895, the peach blossom was officially declared the state flower. Delaware is a state of orchards, in which at that time there were more than 800 thousand peach trees.

The orange blossom (citrus senesis) is the symbol of the state of Florida, the leading citrus-producing state of the United States. Every year, two-thirds of the country's harvest is citrus fruits harvested in Florida's groves. These are mainly oranges and grapefruits.

Blooming grapes (Oregon grape) for the people of Oregon, apple blossom (apple blossom) for Arkansas are familiar companions of everyday life. Orange trees, apple trees, grapes are not only pleasing to the eye during flowering, but are associated with fertility, harvesting. Obviously reflection life of the people in the choice of these signs of determination.

Each of the symbols is a phenomenon specific, unique, unrepeatable, which characterizes the culture of this particular people. The proof of this is the giving of different meanings to the same symbols.

Magnolia as a symbol of Mississippi and magnolia as a symbol of Sochi have different meanings. They have in common a love of sunlight and a beauty that attracts the eyes of local residents. But the difference between a resident of an American state and a resident of a resort town in Russia lies at the heart of the cultural difference between these two symbols. We call it imagery, meaning, which is integral to the general culture, history of development and traditions of the people who use the plant as a symbol.

Another comparison. Clover or shamrock - a traditional symbol for the Irish is associated with the name of St. Patrick, who used clover leaves to explain the dogma of the Holy Trinity

The coat of arms of Belarus is framed by a wreath of golden ears, intertwined with clover flowers on the right, and flax flowers on the left. For the inhabitants of Belarus, the presence of a plant means the fertility of their native land, clover acts as an agricultural symbol.

Clover is one of the nine grasses of the summer solstice bonfire. He is the symbol of a circle divided into four parts - the sun wheel.

Our ancestors believed that clover carries the great power of love, happiness, beauty and youth. His leaves were collected, dried and then always carried with them in a clean piece or, later, in a handkerchief. And a kind helper averted troubles, evil eyes, damage, love spells - he kept the happiness of the person who bowed and ripped him off.

Brahmins see it as a symbol of the four main cultural centers located around the "roof of the world".

Hutsuls - Carpathian Slavs - see the symbol of peace in a four-lobed clover leaf.

So, one plant carries different meanings depending on the history, traditions and beliefs of the people who chose this symbol.

Hence, it is the history of the people, its customs and traditions, beliefs and ideals that determine the semantic content of the symbols. The origin of most of the symbols is associated with legends and traditions in which information about the past is transmitted (89%). The specific reasons for choosing a national symbol are inherent in the unique stories development of each nation, its traditions, everyday life and beliefs.

The choice of a symbol based on specific historical events is observed in 10% of cases - symbols of England, Canada, the American states of Alaska, Connecticut, New Hampshire, Utah.

Watch the video: The growth of a Calochortus catalinae plant from seed to flower